January 13, 2023. Today marks the 31st anniversary of the adoption of the democratic Constitution of Mongolia.
Mongolia adopted four Constitutions in its history with each of its discussions held in 1924, 1940, 1960, and 1992 respectively. While the earlier Constitutions revolved around Marxist ideology, the new 1992 Constitution is considered democratic as it protects the common interest of the citizens of Mongolia without discrimination of social class and ideology. Thus, the day of January 13th came to be marked as the Constitution Day each year.
For the new democratic Constitution of Mongolia, a discussion took place among over 430 deputies of the People’s Great Hural, and over 50 members of the State Baga Hural over the course of 76 days. A public discussion was also held for the new Constitution, which involved about 75 percent of the 1.2 million citizens, the total population of Mongolia at the time, and over 200 thousand suggestions were received on the matter.
The new Constitution of Mongolia established the legal framework for a balanced system of state power, setting the base procedure, rights, and obligations of the State Great Hural (Parliament), the institution of the State Head - the President of Mongolia, the Government of Mongolia, and the judiciary.